This chapter presents the definition, and classification of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). It also includes the potential pitfalls/common errors made regarding diagnosis of disease, diagnosis, prevention/management of complications, important scientific studies, evidence-based clinical data, and essential social guidelines for AML and MDS. Allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) is the only curative treatment for MDS. Patients with intermediate-2 and high risk MDS should undergo allogeneic SCT at the time of diagnosis. Patients with high risk AML benefit from allogeneic SCT in the first remission. Patients with relapsed favorable risk AML can be cured by undergoing allogeneic SCT in the second remission. Use of hypomethylating agents as maintenance therapy in the post-transplant setting is an area of ongoing clinical investigation. Combination of the hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index and disease index score determines long-term outcomes.
- Allogeneic stem cell transplant