Age and Hospitalization Risk in People with Type 1 Diabetes and COVID-19: Data from the T1D Exchange Surveillance Study

Carla Demeterco-Berggren, Osagie Ebekozien, Saketh Rompicherla, Laura Jacobsen, Siham Accacha, Mary Pat Gallagher, G. Todd Alonso, Berhane Seyoum, Francesco Vendrame, J. Sonya Haw, Marina Basina, Carol J. Levy, David M. Maahs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Context: COVID-19 morbidity and mortality are increased in type 1 diabetes (T1D), but few data focus on age-based outcomes. Objective: This work aimed to quantify the risk for COVID-19-related hospitalization and adverse outcomes by age in people with T1D. Methods: For this observational, multisite, cross-sectional study of patients with T1D and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 56 clinical sites in the United States, data were collected from April 2020 to March 2021. The distribution of patient factors and outcomes across age groups (0-18, 19-40, and > 40 years) was examined. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study population, and multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relationship between age, adverse outcomes, and hospitalization. The main outcome measure was hospitalization for COVID-19. Results: A total of 767 patients were analyzed. Fifty-four percent (n = 415) were aged 0 to 18 years, 32% (n = 247) were aged 19 to 40 years, and 14% (n = 105) were older than 40 years. A total of 170 patients were hospitalized, and 5 patients died. Compared to the 0- to 18-years age group, those older than 40 years had an adjusted odds ratio of 4.2 (95% CI, 2.28-7.83) for hospitalization after adjustment for sex, glycated hemoglobin A1c, race, insurance type, and comorbidities. Conclusion: Age older than 40 years is a risk factor for patients with T1D and COVID-19, with children and younger adults experiencing milder disease and better prognosis. This indicates a need for age-tailored treatments, immunization, and clinical management of individuals affected by T1D.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)410-418
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2022


  • COVID-19
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • age
  • hospitalization


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