Advances in liquid phase soft-x-ray photoemission spectroscopy: A new experimental setup at BESSY II

Robert Seidel, Marvin N. Pohl, Hebatallah Ali, Bernd Winter, Emad F. Aziz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


A state-of-the-art experimental setup for soft X-ray photo- and Auger-electron spectroscopy from liquid phase has been built for operation at the synchrotron-light facility BESSY II, Berlin. The experimental station is named SOL3, which is derived from solid, solution, and solar, and refers to the aim of studying solid-liquid interfaces, optionally irradiated by photons in the solar spectrum. SOL3 is equipped with a high-transmission hemispherical electron analyzer for detecting electrons emitted from small molecular aggregates, nanoparticles, or biochemical molecules and their components in (aqueous) solutions, either in vacuum or in an ambient pressure environment. In addition to conventional energy-resolved electron detection, SOL3 enables detection of electron angular distributions by the combination of a ±11° acceptance angle of the electron analyzer and a rotation of the analyzer in the polarization plane of the incoming synchrotron-light beam. The present manuscript describes the technical features of SOL3, and we also report the very first measurements of soft-X-ray photoemission spectra from a liquid microjet of neat liquid water and of TiO2-nanoparticle aqueous solution obtained with this new setup, highlighting the necessity for state-of-the-art electron detection.

Original languageEnglish
Article number073107
JournalReview of Scientific Instruments
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2017
Externally publishedYes


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