Advances in Histological and Molecular Classification of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Joon Hyuk Choi, Swan N. Thung

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver cancer characterized by hepatocellular differentiation. HCC is molecularly heterogeneous with a wide spectrum of histopathology. The prognosis of patients with HCC is generally poor, especially in those with advanced stages. HCC remains a diagnostic challenge for pathologists because of its morphological and phenotypic diversity. However, recent advances have enhanced our understanding of the molecular genetics and histological subtypes of HCC. Accurate diagnosis of HCC is important for patient management and prognosis. This review provides an update on HCC pathology, focusing on molecular genetics, histological subtypes, and diagnostic approaches.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2582
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2023


  • classification
  • hepatocellular carcinoma
  • immunohistochemistry
  • molecular genetics
  • pathology


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