Adjuvant intraluminal therapies for upper tract urothelial carcinoma

Raymond Khargi, Christopher Connors, Anna Ricapito, Alan J. Yaghoubian, Blair E. Gallante, Johnathan A. Khusid, William M. Atallah, Mantu Gupta

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas (UTUCs) are often identified and first treated endoscopically. After proper risk stratification, adjuvant treatment may be recommended. Consequently, as adjuvant therapy becomes more common place in the oncological armamentarium, we seek to better characterize its existing and future therapeutic landscape. In this article, we present an overview of the most up-to-date information about intracavitary instillations as an adjuvant therapy in the context of UTUC. We reviewed the current literature on the epidemiology, disease characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of UTUC with a particularly focus on intraluminal adjuvant therapy for UTUC. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most recent available data regarding adjuvant therapies used for UTUC. Intraluminal therapy plays an increasingly important role in the management of UTUC. Mitomycin C is the most common adjuvant treatment for UTUC with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) being utilized to a lesser extent. UGN-101 is a novel topical gel-based therapy that has shown promising results and thus recently garnered Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for UTUC. Other treatments such as BCG-IFN, gemcitabine, docetaxel, and drug-eluting stents (DES) may play a future role in UTUC treatment given further research. It is important to caveat that current studies on topical adjuvant treatments demonstrate varying degrees of effectiveness. This is largely due to limited research on UTUC, consisting of small sample sizes, and mostly retrospective experiences. Accordingly, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the true benefit of these treatments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1439-1448
Number of pages10
JournalTranslational Andrology and Urology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2023


  • Upper tract urothelial carcinoma
  • adjuvant therapy
  • intracavitary treatment
  • kidney-sparing surgery


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