The overexpression of the adipose gene (adp/WDTC1) in mice inhibits lipid accumulation and improves the metabolic profile. Objective Subcutaneous fat adp expression in humans and its relation to metabolic parameters was evaluated. Design and Methods Abdominal subcutaneous fat adp expression, insulin sensitivity (clamp), and respiratory quotient (RQ; indirect calorimetry) were assessed in: 36 obese and 56 BMI-, race-, and sex-matched type 2 diabetic volunteers (Look AHEAD Adipose Ancillary Study); 37 nondiabetic Pima Indians including obese (n = 18) and nonobese (n = 19) subjects and; 62 nonobese nondiabetic subjects at the Pennington Center in the ADAPT study. Results In the Look AHEAD Study, adp expression normalized for cyclophilin B was higher in males versus females (1.27 ± 0.06 vs. 1.11 ± 0.04; P < 0.01) but not after controlling for body fat. Adp expression was not influenced by the presence of diabetes but was related to body fat (r = -0.23; P = 0.03), insulin sensitivity (r = 0.23; P = 0.03) and fasting/insulin-stimulated RQ (r = 0.31 and 0.33; P < 0.01). In Pima Indians, adp expression was also higher in males versus females (1.00 ± 0.05 vs. 0.77 ± 0.05; P = 0.02) and higher in nonobese versus obese (1.02 ± 0.05 vs. 0.80 ± 0.06; P = 0.03). In the ADAPT study, there was no difference in adp expression between males and females. Conclusion Consistent with animal studies, our results suggest that high adp expression in human adipose tissue is associated with lower adiposity and enhanced glucose utilization.