The transition from childhood and adolescence to adulthood is often tumultuous. For individuals with a chronic medical condition, this progression also includes a gradual transition to independence in healthcare management as well as a transfer in care location at some set point. As adolescents navigate these sometimes challenging processes, there is a significant risk for a decline in adequate health behaviors, which can have dire consequences. One of the most vital components of the transfer to adult care is medication adherence. Poor medication adherence puts patients at risk for worse outcomes, with the most profound being increased mortality for many conditions. In recent years, acknowledgment of the need to create evidence-based methods to aid patients during the transition period has been growing. This paper seeks to provide an overview of current research and recommendations for interventions to increase adherence to medication regimens during this period.