Acute thrombotic manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 infection: Experience at a large New York City health care system

Nicole Ilonzo, Ajit Rao, Scott Safir, Ageliki Vouyouka, John Phair, Melissa Baldwin, Windsor Ting, Krishna Soundararajan, Daniel Han, Rami Tadros, Michael Marin, Peter Faries

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel coronavirus that has typically resulted in upper respiratory symptoms. However, we have encountered acute arterial and venous thrombotic events after COVID-19 infection. Managing acute thrombotic events from the novel virus has presented unprecedented challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. In our study, we have highlighted the unique treatment required for these patients and discussed the role of anticoagulation for patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Methods: The data from 21 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 disease and acute venous or arterial thrombosis were collected. The demographics, comorbidities, home medications, laboratory markers, and outcomes were analyzed. The primary postoperative outcome of interest was mortality, and the secondary outcomes were primary patency and morbidity. To assess for significance, a univariate analysis was performed using the Pearson χ2 and Fisher exact tests for categorical variables and the Student t test for continuous variables. Results: A total of 21 patients with acute thrombotic events met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Most cases were acute arterial events (76.2%), with the remainder venous cases (23.8%). The average age for all patients was 64.6 years, and 52.4% were male. The most prevalent comorbidity in the group was hypertension (81.0%). Several markers were markedly abnormal in both arterial and venous cases, including an elevated neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (8.8) and D-dimer level (4.9 μg/mL). Operative intervention included percutaneous angiography in 25.00% of patients and open surgical embolectomy in 23.8%. Most of the patients who had undergone arterial intervention had developed a postoperative complication (53.9%) compared with a 0% complication rate after venous interventions. Acute kidney injury on admission was a factor in 75.0% of those who died vs 18.2% in the survivors (P = .04). Conclusions: We have described our experience in the epicenter of the pandemic of 21 patients who had experienced major thrombotic events from infection with COVID-19. The findings from our cohort have highlighted the need for increased awareness of the vascular manifestations of COVID-19 and the important role of anticoagulation for these patients. More data are urgently needed to optimize treatment and prevent further vascular complications of COVID-19 infections.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)789-796
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Vascular Surgery
Volume73
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2021

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Limb salvage
  • Thrombosis

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