Acoustofluidic assembly of primary tumor-derived organotypic cell clusters for rapid evaluation of cancer immunotherapy

Zhuhao Wu, Zheng Ao, Hongwei Cai, Xiang Li, Bin Chen, Honglei Tu, Yijie Wang, Rongze Olivia Lu, Mingxia Gu, Liang Cheng, Xin Lu, Feng Guo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Cancer immunotherapy shows promising potential for treating breast cancer. While patients may have heterogeneous treatment responses for adjuvant therapy, it is challenging to predict an individual patient’s response to cancer immunotherapy. Here, we report primary tumor-derived organotypic cell clusters (POCCs) for rapid and reliable evaluation of cancer immunotherapy. By using a label-free, contactless, and highly biocompatible acoustofluidic method, hundreds of cell clusters could be assembled from patient primary breast tumor dissociation within 2 min. Through the incorporation of time-lapse living cell imaging, the POCCs could faithfully recapitulate the cancer-immune interaction dynamics as well as their response to checkpoint inhibitors. Superior to current tumor organoids that usually take more than two weeks to develop, the POCCs can be established and used for evaluation of cancer immunotherapy within 12 h. The POCCs can preserve the cell components from the primary tumor due to the short culture time. Moreover, the POCCs can be assembled with uniform fabricate size and cell composition and served as an open platform for manipulating cell composition and ratio under controlled treatment conditions with a short turnaround time. Thus, we provide a new method to identify potentially immunogenic breast tumors and test immunotherapy, promoting personalized cancer therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number40
JournalJournal of Nanobiotechnology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Acoustofluidics
  • Cancer immunotherapy
  • Cancer models
  • Cell clusters
  • Microfluidics


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