Background. Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTX) and is predominantly caused by calcineurin inhibitors (CI)-induced nephrotoxicity. The activation of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic nephrotoxicity from CI. Methods. We retrospectively investigated the genes coding for components of the RAS (ACE gene, Angiotensin II receptor 1 gene, Angiotensinogen gene) in 233 liver transplant recipients receiving Cyclosporine (CsA) or Tacrolimus (Tac) as maintenance immunusuppressant. All patients with serum creatinine (sCr) <1.0 mg/dL (n=143) before orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTX) were included in the final analysis. Patients were than categorized into two groups based upon their most recent postliver transplant sCr level: Group 1 (n = 83) with sCr <1.5 mg/dL (mean 1.1±0.2) and group 2 (n=60) with sCr ≥1.5 mg/dL (mean 2.5±1.3) Results. ACE D/D genotype was found in 57% of patients with sCr ≥1.5 mg/dL compared to 20% of patients with sCr <1.5 mg/dL (P<0.0001) Conclusions. Our analysis strongly suggests that liver transplant patients with ACE gene D/D genotype are at a significant higher risk of developing CI-induced chronic nephrotoxicity.
- Gene polymorphism
- Liver transplantation