Accuracy and Clinical Impact of Persistent Disease Diagnosed on Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and Accuracy of Pelvic Nodal Assessment on Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anus in the 6-Month Interval Post Chemoradiotherapy

Maria Clara Fernandes, Charlotte Charbel, Paul B. Romesser, Burcin Agridag Ucpinar, Maria El Homsi, Onur Yildirim, James L. Fuqua, Lee A. Rodriguez, Junting Zheng, Marinela Capanu, Marc J. Gollub, Natally Horvat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the 6-month interval post chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in determining persistent disease and whether persistent diffusion restriction on DWI at 6 months is associated with overall survival; and secondarily, to investigate the accuracy of pelvic lymph node assessment on T2-weighted imaging and DWI in the 6-month interval post CRT, in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study included patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus who underwent CRT followed by restaging rectal MRI from January 2010 to April 2020, with ≥1 year of follow-up after CRT. DW images were qualitatively evaluated by 2 junior and 2 senior abdominal radiologists to determine anal persistent disease. The reference standard for anal persistent disease was digital rectal examination/endoscopy and histopathology. Diagnostic performance was estimated using sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value. Survival outcomes were evaluated via Kaplan-Meier analysis, and associations between survival outcomes and DWI status were tested for significance using the log-rank test. Additionally, DW and T2-weighted images were evaluated to determine lymph node status. Results: Among 84 patients (mean age, 63 ± 10.2 years; 64/84 [76%] female), 14 of 84 (17%) had confirmed persistent disease. Interreader agreement on DWI between all 4 radiologists was moderate (Light's κ = 0.553). Overall, DWI had a sensitivity of 71.4%, specificity of 72.1%, positive predictive value of 34.5%, and negative predictive value of 92.5%. Patients with a negative DWI showed better survival than patients with a positive DWI (3-year overall survival of 92% vs 79% and 5-year overall survival of 87% vs 74%), although the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = .063). All patients with suspicious lymph nodes (14/14, 100%) showed negative pathology or decreased size during follow-up. Conclusions: At 6 months post CRT, DWI showed value in excluding anal persistent disease. Persistent diffusion restriction on DWI was not significantly associated with overall survival. Pelvic nodal assessment on DWI and T2-weighted imaging was limited in predicting persistent nodal metastases.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2024
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Accuracy and Clinical Impact of Persistent Disease Diagnosed on Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and Accuracy of Pelvic Nodal Assessment on Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anus in the 6-Month Interval Post Chemoradiotherapy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this