A systematic review of psychosocial and sex-based contributors to gender disparities in the United States across the steps towards kidney transplantation

Shelby A. Smout, Emily M. Yang, Dinushika Mohottige, Camilla W. Nonterah

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: Persistent findings suggest women and patients identified as “female” are less likely to receive a kidney transplant. Furthermore, the limited research on transplantation among transgender and gender diverse people suggests this population is susceptible to many of the same psychosocial and systemic barriers. Objective: This review sought to 1) highlight terminology used to elucidate gender disparities, 2) identify barriers present along the steps to transplantation, and 3) summarize contributors to gender disparities across the steps to transplantation. Methods: A systematic review of gender and sex disparities in the steps towards kidney transplantation was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines across four social science and public health databases from 2005 to 23. Results: The search yielded 1696 initial results, 33 of which met inclusion criteria. A majority of studies followed a retrospective cohort design (n = 22, 66.7%), inconsistently used gender and sex related terminology (n = 21, 63.6%), and reported significant findings for gender and sex disparities within the steps towards transplantation (n = 28, 84.8%). Gender disparities among the earlier steps were characterized by patient-provider communication and perception of medical suitability whereas disparities in the later steps were characterized by differential outcomes based on older age, an above average BMI, and Black racial identity. Findings for transgender patients pointed to issues computing eGFR and the need for culturally tailored care. Discussion: Providers should be encouraged to critically examine the diagnostic criteria used to determine transplant eligibility and adopt practices that can be culturally tailored to meet the needs of patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100858
JournalTransplantation Reviews
Volume38
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2024

Keywords

  • Disparities
  • Gender
  • Kidney transplant
  • Psychosocial
  • Sex
  • Transgender

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