Background: TAFRO (thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, renal insufficiency or reticulin fibrosis, and organomegaly) syndrome is a recently recognized disease with a variety of presentations of variable severity. In acute settings, this disease also involves organ dysfunction because of the associated systemic inflammation. However, cases of TAFRO syndrome with myocardial and/or skeletal muscle calcification have never been reported. Case presentation: A 24-year-old healthy young Asian man was admitted with intermittent epigastric pain and fever for 2 weeks. Computed tomography revealed pleural effusion, ascites and systemic lymphadenopathy. Laboratory tests showed thrombocytopenia, elevated C-reactive protein, hypoalbuminemia, anemia and renal dysfunction. Based on these findings and bone marrow biopsy, we diagnosed his disease as TAFRO syndrome and commenced hemodialysis for the renal dysfunction. However, he developed refractory hypocalcemia with unstable vital signs, for which we administered calcium gluconate hydrate. Thereafter, myocardial and skeletal muscle calcification was revealed radiologically, with the myocardial calcification causing sick sinus syndrome. He was treated with tocilizumab and finally discharged in an ambulatory condition after prolonged hospitalization, with residual calcific lesions. Conclusion: This is the first report of a patient with TAFRO syndrome and the complication of organ calcification. The etiology of calcification in this case is not clear. Systemic inflammation with possible hypercytokinemia might have been involved in the unexpected complication of systemic calcification. It is important to carefully handle the general management of TAFRO syndrome because of the possibility of various complications.
- Myocardial calcification
- Skeletal muscle calcification
- TAFRO syndrome