A review of systemic medications that may modulate the risk of glaucoma

Annie Wu, Anthony P. Khawaja, Louis R. Pasquale, Joshua D. Stein

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


With increasing longevity, patients are developing more and more chronic diseases that require treatment with medications. Yet, it is not fully understood the extent by which these systemic medications affect ocular structures and whether they may increase or decrease the risk of sight-threatening ocular diseases. This review provides a summary of reported associations between different systemic medications and the risk of developing glaucoma or experiencing disease progression. Medication classes covered in this review that are known to or may modulate the risk of open-angle glaucoma include corticosteroids, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, metformin, statins, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, bupropion, postmenopausal hormones, and cannabinoids. Medication classes addressed in this review that may increase the risk of angle closure glaucoma include anticholinergics, adrenergic agonists, certain classes of antidepressants, sulfonamides, and topiramate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12-28
Number of pages17
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2020


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