Parkinson's disease treatment is characterized by the nearly inevitable development of motor complications, including fluctuations and dyskinesias, in which the duration of benefit of a dose of medication is offset by involuntary movements that can be more disabling than the Parkinsonian features themselves. While levodopa remains the gold standard of therapy, it is the most likely to be associated with these complications. The concept of continuous dopaminergic stimulation has gained increasing acceptance as a potential mechanism by which to avoid or delay the development of motor complications, or to minimize their impact once they have already occurred. This article will explore existing and novel formulations of levodopa to identify their role in the spectrum of Parkinson's disease therapeutics.
- Parkinson disease
- complications of levodopa therapy
- continuous dopaminergic stimulation
- motor fluctuations
- pulsatile stimulation