1 Scopus citations


This year marks the 63rd anniversary of the International Society of Nephrology, which signaled nephrology's emergence as a modern medical discipline. In this article, we briefly trace the course of nephrology's history to show a clear arc in its evolution-of increasing resolution in nephrological data-an arc that is converging with computational capabilities to enable precision nephrology. In general, precision medicine refers to tailoring treatment to the individual characteristics of patients. For an operational definition, this tailoring takes the form of an optimization, in which treatments are selected to maximize a patient's expected health with respect to all available data. Because modern health data are large and high resolution, this optimization process requires computational intervention, and it must be tuned to the contours of specific medical disciplines. An advantage of this operational definition for precision medicine is that it allows us to better understand what precision medicine means in the context of a specific medical discipline. The goal of this article was to demonstrate how to instantiate this definition of precision medicine for the field of nephrology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E544-E554
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2023


  • artificial intelligence
  • data science
  • genetics
  • precision medicine
  • precision nephrology


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