A cDNA clone of 1.1 kb encoding a 108-aa polypeptide was isolated from a human pituitary cDNA library by expression cloning. This protein was named tumor differentiation factor (TDF). The recombinant TDF protein and a 20-aa peptide, P1, selected from the ORF of the gene, induced morphological and biochemical changes consistent with differentiation of human breast and prostate cancer cells. Fibroblast, kidney, hepatoma, and leukemic lymphocytic cell lines were unaffected. Breast and prostate cancer cells aggregated in spheroid-like structures within 24 h of exposure to TDF. This effect was abrogated by a specific affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal anti-P1 Ab. E-cadherin expression was increased in a dose-dependent manner by TDF. Treatment of MCF7 cells with TDF led to production of a lactalbumin-related protein. Peptide P1 significantly decreased the growth of androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer in severe combined immunodeficient mice. The presence of TDF protein in human sera was detected by the anti-P1 Ab, suggesting a role of TDF in endocrine metabolism. The fact that all activities of TDF can be mimicked by a peptide derived from the encoding TDF sequence opens the possibility of therapeutic applications.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - 10 Feb 2004|