A Pilot Mixed-Methods Study to Establish the Clinical Usefulness of a Chronic Pain Profile (CPP) for Pain Management

David R. Axon, Darlena Le, Jonathan Chien

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Chronic Pain Profile (CPP) was developed as a tool for patients to document types and levels of use for all pain management strategies used. This pilot mixed-methods (quantitative and qualitative methods) study aimed to assess the perceived clinical usefulness of the CPP and identify potential areas of difficulty using the CPP among a sample of pharmacists. Data were obtained from an online survey of pharmacists licensed to practice in Arizona. Quantitative analysis included assessing the clinical usefulness of the CPP using 10 numerical items (scores ≥50% = useful), 5 ordinal items (scores ≥ 4 out of 5 = useful), and 11 open-response items. Qualitative analysis was conducted by two independent researchers who coded the comments and identified key themes through consensus. Data were collected for 33 individuals. Mean usefulness scores ranged from 66.6 ± 22.4 to 80.9 ± 23.5, and three of the five ordinal items had a median score ≥ 4. Three key themes (and subthemes) were identified: favorable features of the CPP, which included promoting patient advocacy and saving time when accessing pain information; using the CPP, which included evaluating of the effectiveness and appropriateness of the pain management approach and identifying gaps in patient knowledge; and limitations of the CPP, which included absence of customization, interpretation issues, complexity and wording issues, and concerns of internal consistency and reliability. This pilot study provides initial evidence of the CPP’s clinical usefulness that could ultimately be used to help manage pain and improve health outcomes. Further analyses are needed to assess the CPP’s validity and explore its use in wider populations of patients with pain.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5374
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number16
StatePublished - Aug 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • clinical research
  • pain
  • pain management
  • qualitative research


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