Phase 3 studies combining histone deacetylase inhibitors with bortezomib were hampered by gastrointestinal (GI) intolerance, which was not observed when combined with immunomodulatory drugs. This study is a single-center phase 2 study of panobinostat with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (FRD). Twenty-seven relapsed multiple myeloma patients were enrolled. Twenty-two patients (81%) were lenalidomide refractory and 9 (33%), 14 (52%), and 7 (26%) were refractory to pomalidomide, bortezomib, and carfilzomib, respectively. High-risk molecular findings were present in 17 (63%) patients. Responses included 2 complete responses (CRs), 4 very good partial responses (VGPRs), 5 partial responses (PRs), and 9 minimal responses (MRs) for an overall response rate of 41%, clinical benefit rate of 74%, and a disease control rate of 96%. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7.1 months. In the 22 lenalidomide-refractory patients, there were 1 CR, 4 VGPRs, 3 PRs, and 7 MRs, with a median PFS of 6.5 months. Median overall survival was not reached. Grade 3/4 toxicities were primarily hematologic. Gene expression profiling of enrollment tumor samples revealed a set of 1989 genes associated with short (,90 days) PFS to therapy. MAGEA1 RNA and protein expression were correlated with short PFS, and laboratory studies demonstrated a role for MAGE-A in resistance to panobinostat-induced cell death. FRD demonstrates durable responses, even in high-risk, lenalidomide-refractory patients, indicating the essential role of panobinostat in attaining responses. MAGEA1 expression may represent a functional biomarker for resistance to panobinostat. In contrast to PANORAMA 1, there were no significant GI toxicities and primarily expected hematologic toxicities. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00742027.