A pharmacologically-based approach to high dose methotrexate administration to investigate nephrotoxicity and acute kidney injury biomarkers in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed osteosarcoma

Elizabeth Fox, Christine Busch, Alexander DeBernardo, Blair Segers, Joseph Gottschalk, Richard Womer, Naomi Balamuth, Rochelle Bagatell, Frank Balis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: High dose methotrexate (HDMTX) acute kidney injury (AKI) results in prolonged hospitalization and treatment delays. Using a pharmacologically-based approach, HDMTX was administered with standard combination therapy to patients with osteosarcoma; nephrotoxicity was assessed. Methods: Patients were randomized by cycle to 4 h or 12 h HDMTX (12 g/m2) infusions administered with hydration, alkalization and leucovorin rescue. Urinalysis, AKI biomarkers, and estimated glomerular filtration rate using serum creatinine or cystatin C (GFRCr or GFRcysC) were obtained. Serum and urine methotrexate concentrations [MTX] were measured. Results: Patients (n = 12), median (range) age 12.4 (5.7–19.2) years were enrolled; 73 MTX infusions were analyzed. Median (95% Confidence Interval) serum and urine [MTX] were 1309 (1190, 1400) µM and 16.4 (14.7, 19.4) mM at the end of 4 h infusion and 557 (493, 586) µM and 11.1 (9.9, 21.1) mM at the end of 12 h infusion. Time to serum [MTX] < 0.1 µM was 83 (80.7, 90.7) h and 87 (82.8, 92.4) h for 4 and 12 h infusions. GFRCr was highly variable, increased after cisplatin, and exceeded 150 ml/min/1.73 m2. GFRcysC was less variable and decreased at the end of therapy. AKI biomarkers were elevated indicating acute tubular dysfunction, however, did not differ between 4 and 12 h infusions. Radiographic and histological response were similar for patients receiving 4 h or 12 h infusions; the median percent tumor necrosis was > 95%. Conclusions: Reducing peak serum and urine MTX concentration by prolonging the infusion duration did not alter risk of acute kidney injury. GFRcysC was decreased at the end of therapy. Proteinuria and elevations in AKI biomarkers indicate that direct tubular damage contributes to HDMTX nephrotoxicity. Clinical Trial: NCT01848457.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)807-815
Number of pages9
JournalCancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Volume87
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Acute kidney injury
  • Methotrexate
  • Nephrotoxicity
  • Osteosarcoma

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