A Decade in Review: Trends in Female Authorship in Peer-Reviewed Toxicology Journals

Jennifer S. Love, George T. Loo, Lauren Murphy, Courtney Temple, Meghan B. Spyres, Alex F. Manini, Ayrn D. O’Connor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Gender diversity in both emergency medicine and medical toxicology has grown over the last decade. However, disparities in promotion, awards, and speakership still exist. No studies have examined gender disparities in authorship in medical toxicology journals. Research Questions: Does the proportion of female first authors and female senior authors in medical toxicology publications increase over time? What factors predict female authorship in the first author or last author positions in two major medical toxicology journals? Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all non-abstract publications in two medical toxicology journals, Clinical Toxicology and Journal of Medical Toxicology, between 2011 and 2020. We collected author names, number of authors, publication type, and publication year. Author names were used to identify author gender using Gender-API integrative tool. Data on the percentages of female medical toxicology fellows and medical toxicologists was provided by the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM). Results: A total of 2212 publications were reviewed and 2171 (97.9%) were included in the dataset. Overall, 31.7% of first authors were identified as female and 67.0% were identified as male by the Gender-API tool. There were 46.8% male-male author dyads, 24.2% female-male author dyads, 12.1% male-female author dyads, and 5.7% female-female author dyads. Predictors of female first authorship included research and case report articles, and percentage of ABEM female toxicologists. Predictors of female senior authorship included number of authors and percentage of ABEM female toxicologists. The proportion of female authorship in both categories increased over the study period. Conclusions: The frequency of female authorship in the first author position has grown over the last decade and is associated with increasing female representation in medical toxicology and specific manuscript subtypes, specifically research manuscripts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22-30
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Medical Toxicology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024


  • Authorship
  • Disparities
  • Gender
  • Medical toxicology


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