Thyroidectomy remains the gold standard treatment for benign, symptomatic, or enlarging thyroid nodules, malignant nodules, and metastatic lymph node disease. However, in the past 2 decades, image-guided interventional techniques have emerged as promising alternative treatments for these conditions. Percutaneous ethanol ablation is now an accepted first-line treatment for recurring cystic thyroid nodules. Thermal ablation techniques such as high-intensity focused ultrasound, laser ablation, radiofrequency ablation, and microwave ablation have shown efficacy in producing a nodular volume reduction of greater than 50% that is maintained for several years with resolution of local compressive symptoms. There is also increasing evidence that these techniques can effectively treat papillary thyroid microcarcinomas and recurrent metastatic lymph node disease. Because these interventional ablation techniques are performed safely in an outpatient setting, are well tolerated, and the risk for needing thyroid hormone supplementation is negligible, they are becoming a popular alternative treatment to surgical resection. In this comprehensive review, we discuss each of these percutaneous interventions: the devices and techniques, the advantages and disadvantages of each energy, and summarize the outcomes published in the literature.