A comparison of pegged and keeled glenoid clinical outcomes at long-term follow-up after total shoulder arthroplasty

Akiro H. Duey, Troy Li, Christopher A. White, Akshar V. Patel, Carl M. Cirino, Bradford O. Parsons, Evan L. Flatow, Paul J. Cagle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The two main glenoid types used in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) are the pegged and keeled glenoid designs. We aimed to determine if a pegged glenoid is superior to a keeled glenoid at long-term follow-up as measured by range of motion (ROM), patient reported outcomes (PROs), and radiographic glenoid loosening. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing TSA by a single surgeon at an urban, academic hospital. The cohort was stratified into two groups based on glenoid type – one group consisting of keeled implants and a second group consisting of pegged implants. For each patient, forward elevation (FE), internal rotation (IR), external rotation (ER), visual analog scale (VAS), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) shoulder score, and simple shoulder test (SST) scores were collected preoperatively and at the most recent follow-up visit. Radiographic variables included acromiohumeral interval (AHI) and glenoid loosening. Results: After applying exclusion criteria, 144 TSAs were included in our study. Of these, 42 (29.2%) had keeled glenoids and 102 (70.8%) had pegged glenoids. Patients with a pegged glenoid implant were older (67.4 vs. 60.7 years; p < 0.001) and had a shorter follow-up time (9.3 vs. 14.4 years; p < 0.001) than patients with a keeled glenoid implant. At the most recent follow-up visit, there were no significant differences among postoperative FE, ER, AHI, or PROs. However, pegged glenoid implants provided significantly more internal rotation (T11 vs. L1; p = 0.010) and were less likely to show evidence of radiographic glenoid loosening (16.7% vs. 42.9%; p=<0.001). Revision rates were not significantly different between the pegged and keeled groups (6.9% vs. 14.3%; p = 0.158). Conclusion: Although a pegged design correlated with superior internal rotation and less radiographic glenoid loosening, both pegged and keeled glenoid designs offered favorable long-term clinical outcomes following TSA over the long-term.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)120-124
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Orthopaedics
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • Glenoid
  • Keeled
  • Loosening
  • Pegged
  • Range of motion
  • Shoulder arthroplasty


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