Background: The novel influenza A H1N1 (A[H1N1]pdm09) strain emerged in 2009, contributing to significant morbidity and mortality. It is not known whether illness associated with A(H1N1) pdm09 in the post-pandemic era exhibits a similar disease profile. Objective: The objectives of this study were to compare the burden of disease of A(H1N1) pdm09 influenza from the 2009 pandemic year to the post-pandemic years (2010-2014), and to explore potential reasons for any differences. Study design: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of inpatients admitted to Children's Hospital Colorado with a positive respiratory specimen for influenza from May-December, 2009 and December, 2010-April, 2014. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to compare the demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with H1N1 during the two periods. Results: There were 388 inpatients with influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 in 2009, and 117 during the post-pandemic years. Ninety-four percent of all H1N1 during the post-pandemic era was observed during the 2013-2014 influenza season. Patients with A(H1N1) pdm09 during the post-pandemic year were less likely to have an underlying medical condition (P< 0.01). Patients admitted to the ICU during the post-pandemic year had a lower median age (5 vs 8 years, P= 0.01) and a lower proportion of patients were intubated, had mental status changes, and ARDS compared with the pandemic years, (P< 0.01 for all), with decreased mortality (P= 0.02). Conclusion: Patients with influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 during the post-pandemic years appeared to have less severe disease than patients with A(H1N1) pdm09 during the pandemic year. The reasons for this difference are likely multifactorial.
- Post-pandemic period