A 10-Year Follow-up Survey of Psychiatry Resident Education in Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry

Scott R. Beach, Carrie L. Ernst, Mallika Lavakumar, Samuel P. Greenstein, David C. Fipps, Thomas M. Soeprono, Thomas W. Heinrich, Ann C. Schwartz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: In 2010, the Academy of Consultation-Liaison (then Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine) surveyed US residency programs to understand training in consultation-liaison (CL) psychiatry, leading to recommendations in 2014. Since then, residency training in CL has evolved in the context of competing training demands, increased prioritization of electives, and reactions to coronavirus 2019. Objective: To determine the current state of residency training in CL across the United States, including the structure of core and elective resident rotations in CL, attending physician staffing, presence of fellows and other trainees, didactic curriculum, and impact of coronavirus 2019. Methods: Members of the Academy of Consultation-Liaison Residency Education Subcommittee designed and piloted an 81-question survey tool that was sent to program directors of 269 US general psychiatry training programs for voluntary completion. Results: One hundred three of 269 programs responded to the survey, yielding a response rate of 38.3%. Responding programs were larger and more likely to have a CL fellowship than nonresponding programs. Of the 103 responding programs, 82.5% have more than the minimally required time on CL, with 46.6% reporting an increase in total CL time in the past decade. Since 2010, 18.4% of responding programs changed the placement of the CL rotation, with 43.7% now adherent to the 2014 Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine recommendation to include core CL training in the second half of residency. Thirty-five percent of responding programs require residents to rotate on more than 1 CL service, and 19.4% have a required outpatient CL component. Faculty full-time equivalent varies widely. Of all services included, 33.8% report that all CL faculty are board-certified in CL psychiatry, whereas 18.7% have no board-certified faculty. Of the 103 responding programs, 36.9% offer a CL fellowship, but 31.1% report no residency graduates pursuing CL fellowships in the past 5 years. Of the included programs, 77.7% have a formal CL curriculum for residents, with 34.0% reporting a separate didactic series during the CL rotation. Conclusions: Among the responding programs, the amount of time spent on core CL rotations has increased in the past decade, but programs have also shifted CL training earlier in the course of residency. Residency programs are increasingly challenged to provide an optimal CL experience, and updated guidance from Academy of Consultation-Liaison may be appreciated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-208
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 May 2023


  • consultation-liaison
  • education
  • fellowship
  • residency


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