5-millimeter Trocar-site Hernias After Laparoscopy Requiring Surgical Repair

Nigel Pereira, Anne P. Hutchinson, Mohamad Irani, Eric R. Chung, Jovana P. Lekovich, Pak H. Chung, Rasa Zarnegar, Zev Rosenwaks

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Trocar-site hernias are rare complications of laparoscopic surgery. Although trocar-site hernias occur more often at >10-mm sites, hernias can still develop at 5-mm sites after laparoscopy and can lead to serious complications. The primary objective of this review is to summarize the current medical literature pertaining to the clinical presentation and predisposing risk factors of trocar-site hernias at 5-mm sites after laparoscopy. A total of 295 publications were identified, 17 (5.76%) of which met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-seven patients with trocar-site hernias were identified after laparoscopic cases. The median age (interquartile range) for all adult patients with trocar-site hernias was 63 years (interquartile range, 39.5-66.5 years). Eight of the 18 patients (44.4%) undergoing gynecologic laparoscopy were parous although details of parity were not reported in most publications. Simple manual reduction or laparoscopic reduction with fascial closure (21 patients [84%]) was used more often compared with exploratory laparotomy (4 patients [16%], p < .001) to manage trocar-site hernias. There was no statistical difference in the location of trocar-site hernias (i.e., umbilical [14 patients, 56%] vs nonumbilical/lateral [11 patients, 44%], p = .12). Findings of this review suggest that increased operative times and excessive manipulation can extend 5-mm fascial incisions, thereby increasing the risk of trocar-site hernias. Parous women older than 60 years may have unrecognized fascial defects, which confer a higher risk of trocar-site hernias after laparoscopic surgery, even in the absence of incision manipulation or prolonged surgical duration. Such patients may benefit from closure of 5-mm fascial incisions although prospective data are required to validate the overall generalizability of this management strategy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)505-511
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 May 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • 5-mm
  • Fascial defects
  • Incisional hernia
  • Laparoscopy
  • Management
  • Trocar-site hernia


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