Noninsulin-based antihyperglycemic medications in patients with diabetes and COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Translated title of the contribution: Noninsulin-based antihyperglycemic medications in patients with diabetes and COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Mahmoud Nassar, Hazem Abosheaishaa, Awadhesh Kumar Singh, Anoop Misra, Zachary Bloomgarden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Patients with diabetes are more likely to suffer COVID-19 complications. Using noninsulin antihyperglycemic medications (AGMs) during COVID-19 infection has proved challenging. In this study, we evaluate different noninsulin AGMs in patients with COVID-19. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane on 24 January 2022. We used the following keywords (COVID-19) AND (diabetes mellitus) AND (antihyperglycemic agent). The inclusion criteria were studies reporting one or more of the outcomes. We excluded non-English articles, case reports, and literature reviews. Study outcomes were mortality, hospitalization, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Results: The use of metformin rather than other glucose-lowering medications was associated with statistically significant lower mortality (risk ratio [RR]: 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47, 0.77, p <.001). Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) use was associated with statistically significantly higher hospitalization risk (RR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.68, p <.001) and higher risk of ICU admissions and/or mechanical ventilation vs nonusers (RR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.48, p <.02). There was a statistically significant decrease in hospitalization for SGLT-2i users vs nonusers (RR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.84–0.95, p <.001). Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) use was associated with a statistically significant decrease in mortality (RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.42, 073, p < 0.001), ICU admission, and/or mechanical ventilation (RR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69–0.89, p <.001), and hospitalization (RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.98, p =.04). Conclusions: AGM use was not associated with increased mortality. However, metformin and GLP-1RA use reduced mortality risk statistically significantly. DPP-4i use was associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of hospitalization and admission to the ICU.

Translated title of the contributionNoninsulin-based antihyperglycemic medications in patients with diabetes and COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)86-96
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Diabetes
Volume15
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • DPP-4 inhibitors
  • GLP-1RA
  • SGLT-2 inhibitors
  • diabetes
  • oral antihyperglycemic
  • sulfonylureas
  • thiazolidinediones

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